# Advection-Diffusion: Discontinuous Galerkin Method with Upwinding¶

So far we have been using Lagrange spaces of different order to solve our PDE. In the following we show how to use Discontinuous Galerkin method to solve an advection dominated advection-diffusion problem: \begin{align*} -\varepsilon\triangle u + b\cdot\nabla u &= f \end{align*} with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Here $$\varepsilon$$ is a small constant and $$b$$ a given vector.

:

import numpy, math
import matplotlib
matplotlib.rc( 'image', cmap='jet' )
from matplotlib import pyplot
from dune.grid import structuredGrid as leafGridView
from dune.fem.space import dglegendre as dgSpace
from dune.fem.scheme import galerkin as solutionScheme
from dune.ufl import Constant
from ufl import TestFunction, TrialFunction, SpatialCoordinate, triangle, FacetNormal
from ufl import dx, ds, grad, div, grad, dot, inner, sqrt, exp, conditional
from ufl import as_vector, avg, jump, dS, CellVolume, FacetArea, atan

gridView = leafGridView([-1, -1], [1, 1], [20, 20])
space    = dgSpace(gridView, order=2)

u    = TrialFunction(space)
v    = TestFunction(space)
n    = FacetNormal(space)
he   = avg( CellVolume(space) ) / FacetArea(space)
hbnd = CellVolume(space) / FacetArea(space)
x    = SpatialCoordinate(space)

# diffusion factor
eps = Constant(0.1,"eps")
# transport direction and upwind flux
b    = as_vector([1,0])
hatb = (dot(b, n) + abs(dot(b, n)))/2.0
# boundary values (for left/right boundary)
dD   = conditional((1+x)*(1-x)<1e-10,1,0)
g    = conditional(x<0,atan(10*x),0)
# penalty parameter (take 1 for p=0)
beta = 10 * space.order**2 if space.order > 0 else 1

diffSkeleton  = eps*beta/he*jump(u)*jump(v)*dS -\
diffSkeleton += eps*beta/hbnd*(u-g)*v*dD*ds -\
advSkeleton  += ( hatb*u + (dot(b,n)-hatb)*g )*v*dD*ds
form          = aInternal + diffSkeleton + advSkeleton


We solve the problem as in previous examples

:

scheme = solutionScheme(form==0, solver="gmres",
parameters={"newton.linear.preconditioning.method":"jacobi"})
uh = space.interpolate(0, name="solution")
info = scheme.solve(target=uh)
uh.plot() So far the example was not really advection dominated so we now repeat the experiment but set $$\varepsilon=1e-5$$

:

eps.value = 1e-5 # could also use scheme.model.eps = 1e-5
uh.interpolate(0)
scheme.solve(target=uh)
uh.plot() This page was generated from the notebook discontinuousgalerkin_nb.ipynb and is part of the tutorial for the dune-fem python bindings 