Dune 2.7.1

Download the Dune 2.7.1 module sources

DUNE 2.7.1 - Release Notes

DUNE 2.7.1 is a bugfix release, but also includes some minor adjustments. See below for a list of changes.

  • Fixed installation issues where files were not installed.
  • Compilation is possible in C++20 mode, but the required compiler and C++ version remain the same as for DUNE 2.7.0.

Module dune-istl:

  • Several fixed for solver factory.

Module dune-localfunctions:

  • Fixed Lagrange element for (3d) pyramids.

DUNE 2.7 - Release Notes

Module dune-common:

  • Added fallback implementation to C++20 feature: std::identity.

  • A helper class TransformedRangeView was added representing a transformed version of a given range using an unary transformation function. The transformation is done on the fly leaving the wrapped range unchanged.

  • dune-common now provides an implementation of std::variant for all compilers that support C++14. It is contained in the file dune/common/std/variant.hh, in the namespace Dune::Std::. If your compiler does support C++17 the implementation in dune-common is automatically disabled, and the official implementation from the standard library is used instead.

  • By popular demand, dense vectors and matrices like FieldVector and FieldMatrix now have additional operators. In particular, there are

    • Vector = - Vector
    • Matrix = - Matrix While these two work for any vector or matrix class that inherits from DenseVector or DenseMatrix, the following additional methods only work for FieldVector:
    • Vector = Scalar * Vector
    • Vector = Vector * Scalar
    • Vector = Vector / Scalar Correspondingly, the FieldMatrix class now has
    • Matrix = Matrix + Matrix
    • Matrix = Matrix - Matrix
    • Matrix = Scalar * Matrix
    • Matrix = Matrix * Scalar
    • Matrix = Matrix / Scalar
    • Matrix = Matrix * Matrix Note that the operators
    • Vector = Vector + Vector
    • Vector = Vector - Vector have been introduced earlier.
  • There is now (finally!) a method power in the file math.hh that computes powers with an integer exponent, and is usable in compile-time expressions. The use of the old power methods in power.hh is henceforth discouraged.

  • FieldMatrix and FieldVector are now trivially copyable types if the underlying field type is trivially copyable.

    As a consequence the copy assignment operator of the DenseVector class can no longer be used; just avoid going through DenseVector and use the real vector type instead (e.g. FieldVector).

Deprecations and removals

  • The VectorSize helper has been deprecated. The size() method of vectors should be called directly instead.

  • Drop support for Python 2. Only Python 3 works with Dune 2.7.

  • Support for older version than METIS 5.x and ParMETIS 4.x is deprecated and will be removed after Dune 2.7.

  • Deprecated header dune/common/parallel/collectivecommunication.hh which will be removed after Dune 2.7. Use dune/common/parallel/communication.hh instead!

  • Deprecated header dune/common/parallel/mpicollectivecommunication.hh which will be removed after Dune 2.7. Use dune/common/parallel/mpicommunication.hh instead!


  • When run with an absolute build directory, dunecontrol now exposes the root build directory to CMake in the variable DUNE_BUILD_DIRECTORY_ROOT_PATH.

    See core/dune-common!542

  • The dune_symlink_to_sources_files CMake function now has a DESTINATION argument.

  • Dune no longer applies architecture flags detected by the Vc library automatically. This applies to all targets that link to Vc explicitly (with add_dune_vc_flags()) or implicitly (with dune_enable_all_packages()). If you do want to make use of extended architecture features, set the architecture explicitly in the compiler options, e.g. by specifying


    in your opts-file. Vc also sets compiler options to select a particular C++ abi (-fabi-version and -fabi-compat-version), these continue to be applied automatically.

    See core/dune-common!677

  • FindParMETIS.cmake assumes METIS was found first using FindMETIS.cmake and does not longer try to find METIS itself.

  • The inkscape_generate_png_from_svg CMake function is deprecated and will be removed after 2.7.

  • LaTeX documents can now be built using latexmk with the help of UseLatexmk.cmake’s add_latex_document. dune_add_latex_document will use the new way of calling LaTeX when the first argument is SOURCE. As a side effect, in-source builds are supported, too. The old function call and UseLATEX.cmake are deprecated and will be removed after 2.7.

    See core/dune-common!594

  • The build system has learned some new tricks when creating or looking for the Python virtualenv: When using an absolute build directory with dunecontrol, the virtualenv will now be placed directly inside the root of the build directory hierarchy in the directory dune-python-env. This should make it much easier to actually find the virtualenv and also avoids some corner cases where the build system would create multiple virtualenvs that did not know about each other. This behavior can be disabled by setting DUNE_PYTHON_EXTERNAL_VIRTUALENV_FOR_ABSOLUTE_BUILDDIR=0. If you need even more precise control about the location of the virtualenv, you can now also directly set the CMake variable DUNE_PYTHON_VIRTUALENV_PATH to the directory in which to create the virtualenv.

Module dune-geometry:

  • The reference elements have a new method subEntities. The result of referenceELement.subEntities(i,codim, c) is an iterable range containing the indices of all codim-c subentities of the subentity (i,codim), e.g., the vertices of an edge. The range also provides the methods size() and contains().

  • The methods GeometryType(int) and GeometryType(unsigned int) have been deprecated and will be removed after the release of dune-geometry 2.7. Instead, please now use GeometryTypes::cube(dim) to construct one- or two-dimensional GeometryType objects.

  • Geometry implementations now export a type Volume that is used for the return value of the volume methods. So does the generic ReferenceElement implementation.

  • More efficient quadrature rules for simplices are available that need less quadrature points to achieve the same order. For now these have to be explicitly requested:

    auto&& rule = Dune::QuadratureRules<...>::rule(..., Dune::QuadratureType::GaussJacobi_n_0);

    See !127.

Module dune-grid:

  • The YaspGrid class has a new constructor that takes a Coordinates object as its first argument. This object can be of type EquidistantCoordinates, EquidistantOffsetCoordinates, or TensorProductCoordinates, and encapsulates the domain and element sizes. Previously, this data was given directly to different constructors of YaspGrid, and the constructor had to match the Coordinates object used as the second template argument of the YaspGrid class. The new constructor subsumes the previous three, and makes sure by design that the correct information is passed at YaspGrid construction.

  • The GridFactory exports the type Communication and corresponding object comm() that is used to create the grid. In the GridFactoryInterface, this defaults to the Communication induced by the process-local communicator MPIHelper::getLocalCommunicator(), while UGGrid’s factory returns the Communication of the grid. This can be used to steer the grid creation process, see dune/grid/io/file/gmshreader.hh for an example.

  • The number type used by a BoundarySegment is not hard-wired to double anymore.

  • The Grid::getRealImplementation member function has been deprecated. Use the impl() member function of the facade classes directly instead.

  • The AlbertaGrid::getRealIntersection member function has been deprecated. Use the impl() member function of the intersection class directly instead.

  • The return type of all file reader methods that return a grid has been changed from a plain C pointer to the custom pointer class ToUniquePtr<Grid> (from the dune-common module). Values of this pointer class cast to C pointers (but with a deprecation warning), to std::unique_ptr, and to std::shared_ptr. This marks the beginning of a transition period. In the long run, the methods are planned to return objects of type std::unique_ptr, to make it obvious that the calling code receives the ownership of the grid object. For the time being the calling code can still store the return value in a C pointer, but that possibility will go away.

  • Likewise, the return type of the GridFactory::createGridmethod has been changed from a plain C pointer to the custom pointer class ToUniquePtr<Grid>. In the long run, the method is planned to return objects of type std::unique_ptr, to make it obvious that the calling code receives the ownership of the grid object. For the time being the calling code can still store the return value in a C pointer, but that possibility will go away. While this procedure allows full backward compatibility for code that calls GridFactory::createGrid, implementors or third-party grid implementations will need to update their implementations of GridFactory::createGrid.

  • The VTKWriters now support custom output data precision for functions (via the provided FieldInfo), VTKFunctions (via a new virtual interface method precision()), and coordinates (via an argument to the writer’s constructor) that can be chosen at runtime. Any field can now choose between VTK’s Float32, Float64, Int32, UInt8, and UInt32, represented as Dune::VTK::Precision::float32/float64/int32/uint8/uint32, the DataArrayWriter selects the correct type at runtime. The default for functions and coordinate is Float32 as before.

  • The VTKWriter now supports writing functions that can only be evaluated globally, i.e., functions that are not defined with respect to the grid. Such functions will be sampled on the grid vertices (addVertexData) or grid element centers (addCellData).

  • The Capability hasBackupRestoreFacilities<GeometryGrid<HG, CoordFunction>> now returns false in case the CoordFunction is not default-constructible.

  • The Geometry interface now provides the type Volume for the return value of the method of the same name. Note that this may be different from ctype if you care about dimensions. In that case ctype is a length, and not appropriate for a quantity that is a volume.

  • The VTKWriter writer now truncates subnormal floating point values to 0 when writing ASCII files (DUNE::VTK::ascii). This avoids Paraview crashes on macOS. For this reasons, most VTK files written by DUNE 2.7 will differ from the same file written in DUNE 2.6. If you are using VTK files for testing results, make sure to use fuzzy float comparisons!

  • The VTKSequenceWriter now exposes the function clear() of the associated VTKWriter

  • The VTKSequenceWriter allows to get and set the time steps storage, which enables serialization of a sequence writer. The feature can be used to restart a sequence.

  • UG 3.x is no longer supported. Use dune-uggrid instead.

Module dune-grid-howto:

Module dune-istl:

  • New SolverFactory for generating sequential direct or iterative solvers and preconditioners from a ParameterTree configuration.

  • BDMatrix objects now have the method solve, which implements that canonical way to solve block-diagonal linear systems.

  • The class VariableBlockVector::CreateIterator is a true STL output iterator now. This means that you can use STL algorithms like std::fill or std::copy to set the block sizes.

  • MultiTypeBlockVector<Args...> now inherits the constructors from its parent type (std::tuple<Args...>). This means you can now also construct MultiTypeBlockVectors from values or references of BlockVectors.

  • All matrix and vector classes can now be instantiated with number types directly (A number type is any type for which Dune::IsNumber<T>::value is true). For example, you can now use BlockVector<double> instead of the more cumbersome BlockVector<FieldVector<double,1> >. Similarly, you can use BCRSMatrix<double> instead of BCRSMatrix<FieldMatrix<double,1,1>>. The old forms still work, and FieldVector and FieldMatrix types with a single entry can still be cast to their field_type. Therefore, the change is completely backward-compatible.

  • Added a right-preconditioned flexible restarted GMRes solver

  • The UMFPack binding use the long int functions to compute larger systems. With the *dl* versions instead of the *di* versions UMFPACK will not have a memory limit of just 2 GiB.

  • Support for SuiteSparse’s CHOLMOD providing a sparse Cholesky factorization.

  • The interface methods dot() and norm() of ScalarProduct are now const. You will have to adjust the method signatures in your own scalar product implementations.

  • MultiTypeBlockVector now implements the interface method N(), which returns the number of vector entries.

  • MultiTypeBlockVector now implements the interface method dim(), which returns the number of scalar vector entries.

  • MultiTypeBlockVector::count() is now const

  • SeqILU can now be used with SIMD data types.

Deprecations and removals

  • Deprecated support for SuperLU 4.x. It will be removed after Dune 2.7.

  • Deprecated the preconditioner implementations SeqILU0 and SeqILUn. Use SeqILU instead, which implements incomplete LU decomposition of any order.

  • The method setSolverCategory of OwnerOverlapCopyCommunication is deprecated and will be removed after Dune 2.7. The solver category can only be set in the constructor.

  • The method MultiTypeBlockVector::count() has been deprecated, because its name is inconsistent with the name mandated by the dune-istl vector interface.

  • The method MultiTypeBlockMatrix::size() has been deprecated, because its name is inconsistent with the name mandated by the dune-istl vector interface.

Module dune-localfunctions:

  • The header lagrange.hh now includes all headers of all Lagrange implementations, not just the ones with run-time order.

  • Introduce a run-time polymorphic container LocalFiniteElementVariant. Much like std::variant, it implements a type-safe union of different LocalFiniteElement implementations. Elements of type LocalFiniteElementVariant can hold one object from a list of types given as template parameters. These types must be implementations of the LocalFiniteElement interface, and the container will in turn implement this interface.

    Such a variant-based polymorphism is not as flexible as full type erasure, but it is much easier to implement. What is more, it is believed that in many situations the restriction to a fixed set of implementation types is not a problem.

  • Add support for operator() syntax to interpolate(). All interpolate() implementations now support functions f that either support f.evaluate(x,y) or y = f(x).

  • Add an implementation of the Crouzeix-Raviart element.

  • Add an implementation of the Brezzi-Douglas-Fortin-Marini element. The coefficients and interpolation are implemented for arbitrary dimension (>1) and order (>0). The actual basis is only implemented for dim=2 and order=1,2,3.

    See core/dune-localfunctions!105 and core/dune-localfunctions!145

  • Introduce a convenience header hierarchical.hh that includes all hierarchical FE implementations.

  • Introduce a new class LagrangeSimplexLocalFiniteElement, which implements Lagrange finite elements on simplices with compile-time dimension and order. It currently does not cover more general dimension/order situations than what is already available in dune-localfunctions, but it gathers the plethora of different Pk3DNodal, PkNodal, P1Nodal, etc implementations under one single name.

  • Introduce new class BrezziDouglasMariniSimplexLocalFiniteElement (and the same for cubes) that subsumes all currently existing simplex BDM element implementations under a single name. Domain dimension and polynomial order are template parameters now.

  • Introduce a convenience header dune/localfunctions/brezzidouglasmarini.hh that includes all BDM implementations.

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